Suggested reading

History of the bourgeois middle classes

Ambaras, David: “Social Knowledge, Cultural Capital, and the New Middle Class in Japan, 1895-1912”, Journal of Japanese Studies 24 (1998), 1-33.

Beckert, Sven: The Monied Metropolis. New York City and the Consolidation of the American Bourgeoisie, 1850–1896, Cambridge UP, Cambridge 2001.

Bergère, Marie-Claire: The Golden Age of the Chinese Bourgeoisie, 1911–1937, Cambridge UP, Cambridge 1989.

Bledstein, Burton J./Johnston, Robert D. (eds.): The Middling Sorts. Explorations in the History of the American Middle Class, Routledge, New York 2001.

Dejung, Christof: “Auf dem Weg zu einer globalen Sozialgeschichte? Neuere Studien zur Globalgeschichte des Bürgertums”, Neue Politische Literatur 59 (2014), 229-253.

Göçek, Müge Fatma: Rise of the Bourgeoisie, Demise of Empire. Ottoman Westernization and Social Change, Oxford UP, New York/Oxford 1996.

Jones, Charles A.: International Business in the Nineteenth Century. The Rise and Fall of a Cosmopolitan Bourgeoisie, Wheatsheaf, Brighton 1987.

Joshi, Sanjay (eds.): The Middle Class in Colonial India, Oxford UP, New Delhi/Oxford 2010.

Kocka Jürgen/Mitchell, Allan (eds.), Bourgeois Society in Nineteenth Century Europe, Berg, Oxford 1993.

López, A. Ricardo/Weinstein, Barbara (eds.): The Making of the Middle Class. Toward a Transnational History, Duke UP, Durham/London 2012.

Parker, David S./Walker, Louise E. (eds.): Latin America’s Middle Class. Unsettled Debates and New Histories, Lexington, Lanham, KY 2013.

Pernau, Margrit: Ashraf into Middle Classes. Muslims in Nineteenth-Century Delhi, Oxford UP, New Delhi/Oxford 2013.

Watenpaugh, Keith David: Being Modern in the Middle East. Revolution, Nationalism, Colonialism, and the Arab Middle Class, Princeton UP, Princeton/Oxford 2006.

West, Michael O.: The Rise of the African Middle Class. Colonial Zimbabwe, 1898–1965, Indiana UP, Bloomington/Indianapolis, IN 2002.

Young, Linda: Middle-Class Culture in the Nineteenth Century, Palgrave, Basingstoke/New York 2003


The middle classes in today’s world

Chen, Minglu/Goodman, David S.G. (eds.): Middle Class China. Identity and Behaviour, Elgar, Cheltenham/Northampton 2013.

Davis, Diane E.: Discipline and Development. Middle Classes and Prosperity in East Asia and Latin America, Cambridge UP, Cambridge 2004.

Donner, Henrike (eds.): Being Middle-Class in India. A Way of Life, Routledge, London/New York 2011.

Heiman, Rachel, Carla Freeman and Mark Liechty (eds.): The Global Middle Classes. Theorizing through Ethnography, School for Advanced Research Press, Santa Fe 2012.

Lentz, Carola: Elites or Middle Classes? Lessons fromTransnational Research for the Study of Social Stratification in Africa, Arbeitspapiere des Instituts für Ethnologie und Afrikastudien der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz 161, 2015 <>.

Mead, Walter Russell/Schwenninger, Sherle (eds.): The Bridge to a Global Middle Class. Development, Trade and International Finance, Kluwer, Boston, MA u. a. 2003.

Nasr, Vali: Forces of Fortune. The Rise of the New Muslim Middle Class and What it Will Mean for Our World, Free Press, New York 2009.

Ncube, Mthuli/Lufumpa, Charles Leyeka (eds.): The Emerging Middle Class in Africa. Routledge, London/New York 2015.

Rohwer, Jim: Asia Rising. How History’s Biggest Middle Class will Change the World, Brealey, London 1995.

Zunz, Olivier/Schoppa, Leonard/Hiwatari, Nobuhiro (eds.): Social Contracts Under Stress. The Middle Classes of America, Europe, and Japan at the Turn of the Century, Russell Sage, New York 2002.